Radiometric Dating and the Geological Time Scale

January Fossils provide a record of the history of life. Smith is known as the Father of English Geology. Our understanding of the shape and pattern of the history of life depends on the accuracy of fossils and dating methods. Some critics, particularly religious fundamentalists, argue that neither fossils nor dating can be trusted, and that their interpretations are better. Other critics, perhaps more familiar with the data, question certain aspects of the quality of the fossil record and of its dating. These skeptics do not provide scientific evidence for their views. Current understanding of the history of life is probably close to the truth because it is based on repeated and careful testing and consideration of data. The rejection of the validity of fossils and of dating by religious fundamentalists creates a problem for them:

Creation vs. Evolution

Primary source references As a preface to this document, I want to point out that it is a shame that we have to continue to refute the same arguments that evolutionists keep bringing up over and over again in their attempts to argue against the fact of creation, which fact has been well established since the day the earth was created ex nihilo several thousand years ago. It is also a shame that the masses have bought all this based on some circular reasoning about fossils, where fossils tend to be found buried, similarities between various life forms, the presence of certain decay products in rocks, and other inherently speculative arguments about the past, based on phenomena that exist in the present.

If I hope to accomplish anything, it will be to simply encourage critical thinking. One must get past the arguments ad populum that its popularity counts for something , ad hominem that if you attack the person making the argument, this counts for something , and especially ad baculum that there are people who have the clout to decree it as true , to ask the key questions and challenge the unsubstantiated assumptions and thinking of those who would hold to the evolution position.

Today there are an increasing number of anti-creationist authors who are producing books and periodicals that make this relatively brief presentation insufficient to deal with all the points in dispute. Those defending creation today who don’t have the time to devote their life’s study to gaining expertise in all fields of inquiry must principally be prepared to think critically, logically, and challenge unsubstantiated assumptions made by these people.

Radiometric dating or radioactive dating is a technique used to date materials such as rocks or carbon, in which trace radioactive impurities were selectively incorporated when they were formed. The method compares the abundance of a naturally occurring radioactive isotope within the material to the abundance of its decay products, which form at a known constant rate of decay.

At the time that Darwin’s On the Origin of Species was published, the earth was “scientifically” determined to be million years old. By , it was found to be 1. In , science firmly established that the earth was 3. Finally in , it was discovered that the earth is “really” 4. In these early studies the order of sedimentary rocks and structures were used to date geologic time periods and events in a relative way. At first, the use of “key” diagnostic fossils was used to compare different areas of the geologic column.

Although there were attempts to make relative age estimates, no direct dating method was available until the twentieth century.

Everything Worth Knowing About … Scientific Dating Methods

News Here are phylogeny packages and 54 free web servers , almost all that I know about. It is an attempt to be completely comprehensive. I have not made any attempt to exclude programs that do not meet some standard of quality or importance. Updates to these pages are made roughly monthly. Here is a “waiting list” of new programs waiting to have their full entries constructed.

Scientific Facts Proving Charles Darwin’s Theory of Evolution is Wrong, False, and Impossible. News You Can Use. Hi, my name is Evolutionary Fraud from Piltdown, England.

Lots of dating method problems will be added here soon. Have blood cells ever been found in dinosaur fossils? Actual red blood cells in fossil bones from a Tyrannosaurus rex? With traces of the blood protein hemoglobin which makes blood red and carries oxygen? It sounds preposterous—to those who believe that these dinosaur remains are at least 65 million years old. It is of course much less of a surprise to those who believe Genisis, in which case dinosaur remains are at most only a few thousand years old.

In a recent article, scientists from Montana State University, seemingly struggling to allow professional caution to restrain their obvious excitement at the findings, report on the evidence which seems to strongly suggest that traces of real blood from a T.


September Evolution theory explains how organisms have changed over time. The fossil fish Priscacara liops found in sediments dating from the Eocene epoch Scientific understanding requires both facts and theories that can explain those facts in a coherent manner. Evolution, in this context, is both a fact and a theory.

Like gravity and plate tectonics, evolution is a scientific theory. In science, a theory is the most logical explanation for how a natural phenomenon works. It is well tested and supported by abundant evidence.

Mutation Duplication of part of a chromosome Mutations are changes in the DNA sequence of a cell’s genome and are caused by radiation , viruses , transposons and mutagenic chemicals , as well as errors that occur during meiosis or DNA replication. These errors can also be induced by the organism itself, by cellular processes such as hypermutation. During the process of DNA replication , errors occasionally occur in the polymerization of the second strand. These errors, called mutations , can affect the phenotype of an organism, especially if they occur within the protein coding sequence of a gene.

Processes that increase the rate of changes in DNA are called mutagenic: In organisms that use chromosomal crossover to exchange DNA and recombine genes, errors in alignment during meiosis can also cause mutations. These errors create large structural changes in DNA sequence— duplications , inversions or deletions of entire regions, or the accidental exchanging of whole parts between different chromosomes called translocation. Mutation can result in several different types of change in DNA sequences; these can either have no effect, alter the product of a gene , or prevent the gene from functioning.

Accuracy of Fossils and Dating Methods

Eocene My And here’s the tree All the names on the tree are genus names, so recall that each genus encompasses a cluster of closely related species. The is a brief description of the tree for those who are visually impaired. Hyracotherium is shown giving rise to three lineages.

Relative dating is the science of determining the relative order of past events (i.e., the age of an object in comparison to another), without necessarily determining their absolute age, (i.e. estimated age).In geology, rock or superficial deposits, fossils and lithologies can be used to correlate one stratigraphic column with another. Prior to the discovery of radiometric dating in the early.

Why almost all scientists believe in evolution: It is impossible to prove that the theory of evolution is absolutely true. The theory maintains that plant evolution, animal evolution and the major geological changes to the earth unfolded over billions of years. Thus, the full theory cannot be demonstrated in the laboratory. Processes like the rise of mountains and erosion are simply too slow to be observed during one person’s lifetime.

Elements of the theory e.

Evolution: Fact and Theory

View images by clicking on link or reduced image: Each image opens into a new window. These primitive, medium sized apes lived in rain forests between 18 and 22 million years ago. This species and others such as Dryopithecus existed before the hominid line diverged on the path to humans. This lineage ancestral gibbons is believed to have diverged from the great ape and human lineages between 17 and 25 Mya Avers, Oreopithecus ‘s hand closely matches the pattern of early hominids, with a grasping capability including firm pad-to-pad precision gripping that apes are unable to perform presumably as a response to similar functional demands to hominids Moya-Sola et al,

Primate Evolution and Dating Methods Dating Methods Primate Evolution Important steps Examples of fossil primates Considerations of Classification Primitive (ancestral) traits: trait passed on from ancestors Derived traits: a trait that the current organism has but the previous organisms (parents/ancestors) did not have.

Radioactive decay[ edit ] Example of a radioactive decay chain from lead Pb to lead Pb. The final decay product, lead Pb , is stable and can no longer undergo spontaneous radioactive decay. All ordinary matter is made up of combinations of chemical elements , each with its own atomic number , indicating the number of protons in the atomic nucleus.

Additionally, elements may exist in different isotopes , with each isotope of an element differing in the number of neutrons in the nucleus. A particular isotope of a particular element is called a nuclide. Some nuclides are inherently unstable.

Creation v. Evolution: How Carbon Dating Works